George M. Fredrickson, 2002 and 2015
Racism: A Short History explores the roots and manifestations of racism in the western world. Frederickson takes the time to break down the definition of “racism” and analyzing it in its different contexts. Frederickson examines western racism by focusing mainly on three “overtly racists regimes:” Nazis, American slavery, and South African Apartheid. Racism often utilizes elements of sociology to examine why racial hierarchies were formed the way they did.